Search algorithms

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To find a solution, you usually need to search for it. For artificial agents, this is no different. But how should an agent search? We take a look at some alternatives. Continue reading

Boids: Flocking made simple

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Craig Reynolds’ boids make use of a small set of simple rules to simulate the grouping or flocking behaviour of birds or fish. While boids only react to a small number of nearby flockmates, the behaviour of the group can be pretty complex. Continue reading

Braitenberg vehicles

braitenberg 

Braitenberg vehicles are simple agents that demonstrate how the interaction of simple rules can result in complex behaviour. Continue reading

Repeated simple spatial games

simplegames 

This script simulates a small number of simple games, and shows how spatial features can change the way strategies persist or disappear from the population. Continue reading

Phantom jams

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Some traffic jams have clear causes, such as an accident, road works, or an upcoming on-ramp. However, some traffic jams seem to occur for reason at all. This simulation shows how these phantom jams can occur. Continue reading

Schelling’s model of segregation

schelling 

Schelling’s model of segregation uses agent-based models to show how preferences of similarity can quickly lead to segregation. Continue reading

Tacit Communication Game

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The Tacit Communication Game is a cooperative communication game in which two players attempt to match their own tokens to a certain goal configuration. Importantly, only one of the players knows what that goal is, and has to communicate the goal to the other player. Both theory of mind and predicatbility play an important role in making this happen. Continue reading

Negotiating with alternating offers

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Colored Trails is a negotiation game played on a board of differently colored tiles. Two players trade chips with one another to reach a certain goal location on the board. Players negotiate by alternating in offering a new distribution of their chips until one such offer is accepted, or until someone withdraws from the negotiation. Importantly, each player knows his or her own goal location, but they do not know the goal of their trading partner. Theory of mind turns out to play an important role in negotiations of this type, where both competition and cooperation play a role.
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Rock-paper-scissors

rps_example 

Rock-paper-scissors is a two-player competitive game in which players simultaneously choose to play either rock, paper, or scissors. If the two players made the same choice, the game ends in a tie. In other cases, rock beats scissors, scissors beats paper, and paper beats rock. Theory of mind can help players to exploit patterns of behavior in repeated rock-paper-scissors games. Continue reading

Limited Bidding

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Limited bidding is a simplified version of a game described in “Edward de Bono’s Supermind Pack”. The game is played by two players, who each own an identical set of five numbered tokens. Over the course of five rounds, players simultaneously bid one of their own tokens, with the player picking the highest number bid winning the round. However, each token can only be used once per game. Theory of mind can help players to compete more effectively in this game. Continue reading