Birds of a feather flock together
In 1986, Craig Reynolds developed a model of flocking, in which agents group together through the interaction of a few simple rules (see also Reynolds, 1987). In this model, agents form groups even though they do not have a group identity, or even a concept of what a group is. The behaviour of a group as a whole is determined entirely by the interaction of individual agent choices based on the local situation. The script on this page (open script in separate tab) allows you to experiment with different interaction rules for boids. The controls for this script are described at the bottom of the page.
Boids: Bird-like objects
Boids, or bird-like objects, are simple agents that react to their local environment based on a few simple rules. In its simplest form, boids’ flocking behaviour is the result of the three rules avoid, align, and approach. In addition to these basic flocking rules, the script on this page implements two more rules, which cause boids to flee from predators and return to the center of the screen.
|Figure 1: Boids exhibit flocking behaviour through a combination of three rules. Boids avoid collision with others, align their direction with nearby flockmates, and approach to distant boids.|
The avoid rule is meant to prevent boids from colliding with their flockmates. Every flockmate within the avoidance range forces the boid to move away from that flockmate. Figure 1 shows a situation with a boid that has one flockmate in its avoidance range, indicated by a red circle. In general, the avoid rule is the rule with the shortest range and the highest impact on the boid’s behaviour. In the script on this page, the avoidance force is also the only force that varies with the distance to the flockmate. The closer the boid is to a flockmate, the stronger the avoidance force felt by the boid. In addition, a boid that feels an avoidance force will ignore align or approach forces.
The align rule causes boids that are part of the same flock to have the same general direction. For every flockmate within the alignment range, a boid will feel a force to match its heading to that of the flockmate. If there are multiple flockmates in the alignment range, the boid tries to move towards the average direction of those flockmates. The situation in Figure 1 shows four flockmates in the alignment range (indicated by a blue circle) that are not in the avoidance range. The boid in the center wants to align itself with each of these flockmates.
The aproach rule makes boids move towards the center of the group of flockmates that they can see. Each boids feels a gravitational force towards the center of all flockmates in its approach range. This rule makes sure that boids will not drift out of the group. Among the flocking rules, the approach rule is typically the one with the highest range, which means that any boid outside the approach range is usually ignored entirely. However, a group may be much larger than the approach range, and the actions of a boid may have effects that
By changing the strength and range of the flocking rules, it is possible to vary flocking behaviour. For example, boids will group together even without any alignment forces. Such groups have much less coordinated behaviour than groups that do experience alignment forces, however.
|Figure 2: Boids flee from predators that they detect in their fleeing range.|
In addition to flocking, the script on this page implements two more behavioural rules for boids. The first of these is the flee rule, which causes boids to flee from predators. In the script, predators are larger boids that only experience one type of force: the predation force. Predators always move towards the nearest boid, unhindered by flocking behaviour. In addition, boids also consider the mouse cursor to be a predator.
The flee rule is similar to the avoid rule, except that the fleeing force is not dependent on the distance to the predator. As soon as a boid detects a predator in its fleeing range (depicted as a magenta coloured circle in the script), it will try to move in the opposite direction. The fleeing force is applied
Although boids only flee from predators that appear in their fleeing range, boids can experience
|Figure 3: Boids experience a force to return to the center of the screen.|
Finally, boids can also experience an attractive force from their home range, which causes them to return to the center of the screen. In the script, the home range of the boids is indicated by a cyan area. Unlike other behavioural rules, which have a maximum range, the return rule has a minimum range. Boids only experience a force to return to the center of the screen when they leave the home range.
Returning to the center of the screen is applied before flocking and fleeing. This means that although boids prefer to stay within the home range, they may leave the home range because of the presence of flockmates or predators.
- Zoom slider: Determines the magnification of the script area.
- Boids sliders: Determines the number and movement speed of boids in the simulation.
- Predators sliders: Determines the number and movement speed of predators in the simulation.
- Lightbulb slider: This determines the number of lightbulbs in the arena. For performance reasons, the number of lightbulbs has been limited to four.
- Behaviour sliders: For each behavioural rule avoid, align, approach, flee, and return, these sliders control the range of the rule as well as the strength of the rule.
- Behaviour checkboxes: In this script, one boid is selected at random to visualize the range of behavioural rules. When the checkboxes of the behavioural rules avoid, align, approach, or flee are checked, the corresponding range is shown around this boid as a coloured ring. For the return rule, this checkbox determines whether the home range is indicated as a solid coloured circle.